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The tracheostomy is one of the oldest and best-known medical procedures in medicine.

To the layman, it is a "hole in the throat to allow air passage". Although this description does represent the procedure, it is necessary to understand a little more about the anatomy of the airways and the use of a cannula for the application of the method.

How the Tracheostomy Works

Oxygen follows a defined pathway in and out of the lungs. When considering the inspiration process, in which the air enters through the nostrils, passes through the larynx (through the vocal folds), and continues through the trachea to the bronchi, when the patient stops breathing naturally, it is necessary to have the help of devices and receive the air through a tube that passes through the mouth, larynx, between the vocal folds, until reaching the trachea.

The procedure is performed in the ICU itself or the surgical center, under general anesthesia, thanks to a small incision in the middle of the neck.

After making the hole in the trachea, a shortcut is created to bring oxygen to the lungs (or even remove possible secretions from the bronchi).

After the trachea is opened, a tracheostomy tube is inserted and connected to the ventilator. There is a balloon at the end of the cannula that is inflated so that the oxygen injected through the tube can follow its path to the lungs, always avoiding leakage around the cannula.

Types of Tracheostomy Cannulas

The cannulas can be made of silicone, metal, or plastic; with a cuff or without a cuff. The cuff is a type of balloon. Its main function when inflated is to ensure permeable and adequate mechanical ventilation, in addition to helping reduce the passage of secretions into the lungs.

Disposable tracheostomy cannulas:

  • Made of PVC and silicone material;

  • Without cuff;

  • With cuff;

Tracheostomy cannulas:

  • Fenestrated (has an internal hole for phonation training, may or may not have a cuff);

  • Wired.

Main Care with Tracheostomy Cannulas

  • Clean the area around the dressing with soap and water;

  • Change the dressing and the bandage whenever it is dirty;

  • Place clean gauze around it, between the cannula and the patient's skin, to protect the skin;

  • Avoid the invasion of water in the tracheostomy (during bathing or hygienization of the site);

  • Follow the stoma periodically.

  • Change regularly every 30 days.

Hospital products with safety and quality

Jensen Instrument Technologies sells a wide range of medical-hospital products and can quickly meet the resupply needs of hospitals and clinics throughout Australia.

Click here to check the different types of cannula models from Jensen Instrument Technologies.


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