Abdominal Trocar Types

The Abdominal Trocar is a plastic or metal device used to perform Laparoscopy. It serves as a channel through which certain instruments are placed into the body.

The Abdominal Trocar is a plastic or metal device contained in a tube and is used in the medical field to aid the surgeon to perform a particular kind of surgery (Laparoscopy). It serves as a channel through which certain instruments are placed into the body. Some of these instruments are; surgical scalpels, scissors, etc.

The Abdominal Trocar is passed into the abdomen to enable easy movement for the surgeons as they perform a Laparoscopy on the patients. The Abdominal Trocar is also a means by which liquid deposits are removed from the body organ.

Laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery is a procedure performed in the operating room by a surgeon. It is an operation that involves both the abdominal and pelvic region, it enables the surgeon to see into the abdomen in order to identify whatever problem may be present.

Laparoscopy is a procedure performed without the need for a large surgical incision on the skin. Laparoscopy is carried out with the aid of a laparoscope.

A laparoscope is a thin tube with a camera that enables the surgeon to have a full scope of the condition within the abdomen or pelvic, and a light bulb to ensure better visibility for the surgeon.

The laparoscope is passed into the abdomen through the Abdominal Trocar which is placed strategically in different positions on the abdomen.

Parts of Abdominal Trocar

The Abdominal Trocar is made up of 3 parts that are responsible for its application. These parts include;

The Cannula

It is the cylindrical part of the trocar which is infused into the body of the surgical patient to gain access into their abdominal cavity.

The Seal

It is located at the top-most part of the cannula. It is responsible for the prevention of air dispersing out of the abdominal cavity. It is also used to maintain air pressure which is a requirement to assist the surgeon in having a clearer view of the operation site.

The Obturator

This enables the cannula to get inserted into the abdominal cavity, and ensures that the abdominal trocar remains in-situ throughout the surgery which will allow the surgeon to operate more efficiently.

Types of Abdominal Trocar

There are different types of Abdominal Trocars used in carrying out surgical processes. However, the type of abdominal trocar used for any surgery is dependent on the specificity of such surgeries. Some of these abdominal trocar includes;

Cutting Trocars

It is made up of a sharp alloy or ductile blade that allows it to pierce through different levels of body tissue when force is applied to it. After cutting through several layers of tissue, it is then inserted into the abdominal cavity of the patient.

Adverse effects of using Cutting Trocars

  • It causes scarring, hernia, and incision site pain.

  • It also increases the risk of damaged blood vessels.

  • It also leads to the accidental piercing of internal organs such as; intestine, liver, etc.

Hasson or Bladeless Trocars

It is a newly formed device that has a blunt distal point that effectively isolates and expands the various levels of tissues when applied to the patient with force. It is a device that does not harm the patient in any form by avoiding the cutting of tissues. This occurs to limit the risk associated with injuring internal organs.

Hasson trocars are put into effect by two techniques; the Hasson cut down technique and the open technique.

The cut-down technique requires the surgeon to make a 2cm-3cm opening to enable the infusion of the Hasson trocar into the abdominal cavity. The open technique will avail the surgeon the opportunity to have a clear vision of the surgical field, and help him operate on it without disturbance or interference.

Benefits of Hasson Trocars

  • Its incision is as wide as that of cutting trocars.

  • It allows for quick recovery from incisions.

  • It minimizes the occurrence of a hernia.

  • There is a reduced presence of scarring.

  • It is not as painful as cutting trocars.

  • It decreases the likelihood of a pierced internal organ.

Optical Trocars

Optical Trocars is a type of abdominal trocar whose unique attribute is in its possession of a lens. The optical trocar along with a laparoscope is inserted into the abdominal cavity during the surgical process to provide the surgeon with a vivid knowledge of the abdominal cavity component and allow him/her to have a complete layout of the surgical field.

Benefits of Optical Trocars

  • It is created with a specification of isolating the tissues instead of cutting them.

  • It aids accelerated healing.

  • It decreases the risk of vascularized injury.

  • It reduces bleeding from the incision site.

  • It keeps the laparoscope in position with the aid of a lock button.

  • It provides comfort to the surgeon as it is easy to handle.

  • It shows a complete display of the abdominal cavity.

  • It requires small materials for suturing.

Adverse Effect of Optical Trocars

  • It can lead to stomach perforation during the process of its insertion.

  • There is a high tendency for liver laceration.

  • It can cause injuries to the blood vessels before it is closely inserted near them.

Complications of Trocars

Several complications arise from the usage of trocars. Some of these complications, if not treated accordingly and on time, may result in death. Some of these complications are as follows;

  • Intra-abdominal vascular and visceral injuries.

  • Trocar site bleeding: When there is bleeding due to insertion of trocars, there is a tendency of it leading to hemorrhage.

  • Herniation.

  • Infection: When the incisional site is not properly sutured, there is a high tendency of the individual getting infected by microorganisms which will be harmful to the patient.

In conclusion, abdominal trocars have brought about an innovation in the health sector as there has been an increase in the successes associated with laparoscopic surgery. However, for every positive it has provided, there has also been an adverse effect. Overall, the use of abdominal trocars is considered to be more positive as it ensures that there are minimal injuries incurred by the patient during and after the surgery.


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